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科学美国人60秒: 新型杀虫剂让蚊子爆破死亡

所属教程:科学美国人60秒科学系列 更新:12-28
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New Insecticide Makes Mosquitoes Pop

新型杀虫剂让蚊子爆破死亡

It's bad enough that mosquitoes suck our blood, and sometimes pass on disease. But there's more. "They can actually give you a disease and pee on you at the same time. Adding insult to injury if you will." Jerod Denton, a pharmacologist at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

蚊子吸食我们的血,并且有时还传播疾病,非常的糟糕。“蚊子,可以同时传播疾病并且向你撒泡尿。”让你雪上加霜。杰洛德·丹顿是范德比尔特大学医学中心的药理学家。

"If you look up almost any picture on Google of a mosquito taking a blood meal you'll see a clear drop of fluid hanging out of the rear end of the mosquito. That's actually the urine the mosquito has made from your blood."

如果你看蚊子吸血的谷歌图片,你会清晰的看到在蚊子的尾部有一滴液体。这其实就是蚊子利用你的血液撒的尿啊.

That pee production is vital to the mosquito's survival. Because blood is salty. "And as these mosquitoes digest the red blood cells to get at the proteins and other nutrients hiding there, they release potassium chloride which can cause depolarization of the membrane potential of excitable cells and induce ‘excitotoxic death.’"

小便的产生对于蚊子的生存至关重要。因为血液是咸的。“随着蚊子消化血液中的血红细胞来获取其中的蛋白质和隐藏其中的其他影响物质,它们就会释放氯化钾,氯化钾会引起可兴奋神经细胞去极化并诱发“兴奋性毒素死亡””。

Translation: not good. So mosquitoes and other bloodsuckers have evolved a rapid diuretic process to expel salt from their bodies, using kidney-like structures. Basically, while still sucking blood, they start peeing.

翻译:这样的结果不太好。因此,蚊子和其他的吸血动物已经演化了快速利尿过程:利用类似肾脏的结构将盐分从体内排出。基本上呢,就是在吸血的时候,就开始排尿了。

But Denton and his colleagues found a way to block all that. They developed a chemical compound that blocks the bugs' salt-ejecting pores, "sort of like a cork in a bottle." So when the skeeters come in contact with the compound, they swell up—and stay that way. "And in some cases we can actually see the abdomen rupture, because they've basically overfilled with food." The study is in the journal Scientific Reports.

但是,丹顿和他的同事们发现了堵截上述过程的方法。他们研发了一种化合物,这种化合物可以阻塞蚊子的排盐毛孔。所以,当蚊子接触到这种化合物,它们就会膨胀,然后就呆在原地不动了。“在某些情况下,我们可以明显看到蚊子的腹部破裂,因为它们的腹部了基本上都是血液。”该研究结果发表在《科学报告》杂志上。

The substance doesn't kill honeybees, and it works well on insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, too. So if it turns out to be safe enough to use around humans, the pesticide will give a whole new meaning to "bye-bye, sucker!”

但是这种化合物不会杀死蜜蜂,但是也会杀死一些抗药性的蚊子。所以,如果结果证明在人类周围使用这些化合物是非常安全的,那么这种农药就会有全新的含义“再见了,笨蛋蚊子!”

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