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科学美国人60秒: 混凝土的缺陷可以增加其韧性

所属教程:科学美国人60秒科学系列 更新:01-10
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Concrete Defects Could Become Strengths

混凝土的缺陷可以增加其韧性

Concrete is one of the most widely used materials on the planet. "And this consumption comes with a heavy ecological price." Rouzbeh Shahsavari, a materials scientist at Rice University. "Around 5 to 10 percent of total CO2 emissions comes from concrete production."

混凝土是世界上使用最广泛的一种材料。这种消费模式有一个沉重的生态代价。“Rouzbeh Shahsavari是莱斯大学的材料科学家。“大约5%到10%排放的的二氧化碳来自混凝土生产过程中。”

One way to reduce those emissions, he says, would be to increase the strength and toughness of concrete. So you need less of it in construction. But to make something stronger, you need to understand its weaknesses.

他表示,减少混凝土中的二氧化碳排放量的一种方法就是增加混凝土的强度以及韧性。这样在建设中混凝土的使用量就会减少。但是,让一些混凝土变得更强韧,就需要了解混凝土的缺陷。

So Shahsavari and his team studied the defects in a rock called tobermorite. (TO-ber-MOR-ite) The rock is an analog for wet cement, the main ingredient in concrete. And they found that certain defects in the rock actually made the rock tougher, if they were aligned in a specific configuration. Sounds counterintuitive: Defects a good thing?

所以,、Shahsavari和他的团队研究了雪硅钙石这种岩石的不足之处。这种岩石可以模拟湿水泥,而湿水泥是混凝土的主要成分。结果他们发现,如果按照特定结构进行排列的这种岩石的一些缺陷让这种岩石更加的坚韧。似乎听起来有悖于常理:缺陷反而成为了一件好事情?

"Defects are typically considered a bad feature of material. But when it comes to complex systems, like cement or concrete, it's not the case. It may actually be an opportunity to introduce toughness, or get something better out of it." The study is in the journal ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces.

“缺陷通常被认为是材料不好的特征。但当涉及到复杂的系统,比如水泥或混凝土,情况却不是 如此。这实际上可能有助于加入韧性或者获得更好的品质。”该研究结果发表在美国化学学会《应用材料与界面》杂志上。

Next step, Shahsavari says, would be to optimize concrete recipes—to use these defects in their favor. Play with manufacturing temperatures, or alter the ratios of impurities in the mix.

Shahsavari表示,下一步将是优化混凝土的组成——将这些缺陷变为益处。改变制造温度或杂质的混合比例。

"Since we're using it pretty much in every building, every bridge, every highway in all parts of the world, even a slight impact in the performance could have a huge consequence in terms of energy consumption, CO2 footprint, and all those things." And take a little concrete out of the concrete jungle.

“因为我们使用混凝土非常的广泛,每一个建筑,每一个桥,在世界各地的高速公路。所以,即使对其性能微笑的改变竟会对于能源的消耗、二氧化碳足迹以及所有事情产生重大的影响。”也就会减少混凝土的使用量。

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