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科学美国人60秒: 未来的皮肤自愈无疤痕技术

所属教程:科学美国人60秒健康系列 更新:01-13
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Hair Cells Could Heal Skin Sans Scars

未来的皮肤自愈无疤痕技术

Long ago, before Band–Aids, or even medicine of any kind, our ancestor resevolved to heal cuts themselves. If you got sliced open, the body blocked it up, to prevent blood loss, water loss, infection. But as we gained that power—we sacrificed something else.

很久以前,没有邦迪以及其他类似的药物时,我们的祖采用伤口自愈的方法。如果你有切伤,身体就会将伤口处封锁,防止血液、水分的流失以及伤口感染。但是,我们获得了伤口自愈的能力——我们就要失去一些东西。

"So we've evolved to heal very quickly, or as quickly as possible, at the expense of regenerating skin the way it used to be." George Cotsarelis, a skin biologist at the University of Pennsylvania who studies that newly healed skin—aka scars. "And the feature of scars is that they don't have hair follicles, sweat glands or fat."

“所以,我们进化到可以让伤口快速愈合,或者尽可能以损害皮肤再生的方法” George Cotsarelis是宾夕法尼亚大学的皮肤生物学家,他主要研究新生的皮肤——伤痕。“伤痕的特点是没有囊、汗腺或脂肪。”

In that observation lies a clue, which Cotsarelis and his team investigated in mice. They found that, when mice were injured, hair follicles sometimes regenerated at the wound site. And where hair cells appeared, fat cells did, too—the fat that sits under normal skin, as a cushion. "The bottom line is that the follicle has these almost magical powers where it's really normalizing the skin architecture." Meaning hair cells are good for reducing scarring.

在观察中存在这样的线索,Cotsarelis和他的团队调查了老鼠。他们发现,老鼠受伤的时候,毛囊有时在伤口处再生。毛囊细胞出现时,脂肪细胞也就出现——脂肪就存在于正常皮肤的下面,起缓冲作用。“小囊泡有神奇的功能,它能够使皮肤组织正常化。”这也就意味着毛细胞有益于减少疤痕。

In their latest work, in the journal Science, they isolated a growth factor called BMP from the hair follicles. It's a signal the follicles send to neighboring cells. They then exposed human scar cells to BMP, in a dish. They found that the growth factor did indeed help to reprogram the scar cells to fat cells, nudging them down a different developmental path.

在《科学》杂志上,最新的作品,他们从毛囊中分离出了一种叫作骨形成蛋白的生长因子。这表示毛囊会把这种物质给周围的细胞。然后他们在培养皿中让人类的疤痕细胞暴露在骨形成蛋白中。他们发现,生长因子确实有助于重组疤痕细胞,促使他们向不同的发展路径。

Cotsarelis says a magic scar-free ointment is probably a ways off. "It's a very complicated process and knowing the timing of when to introduce things, how to introduce them, and the delivery of the compounds is important." But if we figure that out—we might someday be able to coax our skin to heal itself…without leaving visible evidence behind.

Cotsarelis表示,一个神奇的无疤痕软膏可能是一种方法。“这是一个非常复杂的过程,什么时间来处理,怎样处理,以及药物的传送都非常的重要。”但是,如果我们把那个过程整清楚——在未来的某一天我们可能诱导皮肤进行自愈,同时也不会留下疤痕。

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