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科学美国人60秒:黑猩猩也很善解人意

所属教程:科学美国人60秒科学系列 更新:12-20
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Chimps Able to Apprehend Another Chimp's Mind-Set

黑猩猩也很善解人意

That means danger—to a chimpanzee. Chimps use this call, known as an "alert hoo," to warn each other about a potential threat, like a dangerous snake on the forest floor. And researchers have now used recordings of that call to get inside the chimpanzee mind.

对黑猩猩来说,这个叫声意味着危险。黑猩猩用这个叫做“警报呼呼”的叫声来警告对方潜在的威胁,例如地面上有一条危险的蛇。现在研究人员利用这些录音来了解大猩猩的思维。

"There is more studies showing that various animals seem to be able to take another's perspective into account to a certain extent. They seem to be able to understand what another sees or doesn't see for example."

有更多研究表明,在某种程度上,很多动物能将其他动物的想法考虑进去。这些动物似乎能够理解其他动物看到或者看不到的事物。

Catherine Crockford, a primatologist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany.

Catherine Crockford是德国马克斯普朗克进化人类学研究所的灵长类动物学家。

Crockford and her team traveled to Uganda's Budongo Forest to study the ability of chimps to modify their calls based upon the knowledge of others.

Crockford和团队行至Budongo森林来研究黑猩猩基于对其他动物的了解改变叫声的能力。

They hid a fake snake on the ground and then used a loudspeaker to broadcast chimp calls. In some cases, the speaker played that alarm call, the "alert hoo,"

他们将一条假蛇藏在地面上,然后用扩音器播放黑猩猩的叫声。在某些情况下,扬声器播放“警报呼呼声”。

suggesting to listeners that a nearby chimp was aware of the snake.

这种声音向旁听者暗示附近的黑猩猩意识到有蛇。

But in other cases, the speaker played a different kind of call called a rest hoo,

但是在其他情况下,扬声器播放一种不同的声音“休息呼呼”

This non-alarm told listener the chimp they were hearing was not aware of any snake danger.

这种非警报声音向旁听者传递,听到声音的黑猩猩没有意识到蛇有危险。

And when the chimps who had heard the rest hoo came across the fake snake, they gave ample warnings, using both their alarm calls and body language. But when chimps heard the alarm call before encountering the fake snake, they produced fewer alert hoos—apparently satisfied that their comrades were aware of the threat. The study is in the journal Science Advances.

当听到“休息呼呼”的黑猩猩遇到假蛇时,它们就会使用警戒叫声以及肢体语言来发出大量的警告。但是,当黑猩猩在遇见假蛇之前听到警告声时,它们就会发出较少的警戒声——很显然它们对同伴意识到了危险很满意。该研究结果发表在《科学进展》杂志上。

"So we were able to tease those things apart and show that the main motivation for their calling didn't really fit with their own emotional state or their own habituation level to the snake, so it really seemed that they were taking into account the others' perspective."

“我们能够区分这些情况,并表明,它们发出叫声的主要动机并不完全符合自己的情绪状态或者对于蛇的适应水平,而是似乎黑猩猩考虑到其他动物的看法。”

Seems that, like humans, chimps and perhaps other primates are able to adjust their communications based on what they think their intended recipients think. Which is clearly a useful ability for intelligent beings that have complex social lives.

人类、黑猩猩和其他灵长类动物一样,它们似乎能够根据预期接受者的想法来调整自己的表达方式。这显然是对于拥有复杂社会生活的智能生物是很有用的能力。

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