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科学美国人60秒:会唱歌的鱼

所属教程:科学美国人60秒科学系列 更新:12-25
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This Fish Emits Damaging Decibels

会唱歌的鱼

They're among the most amazing events of the wild world:

它们是自然界最令人惊叹的事情之一:

Africa's thundering herds of wildebeest. BBC: "...and nothing will stop them now." >

非洲成群的牛羚。BBC:现在,什么也阻挡不了它们。

The incredible migrating monarch butterflies. National Geographic: "One of the great spectacles of nature."

帝王蝶的迁徙场面,让人惊叹。国家地理:自然界最壮观的场面之一。

The captivating chorus ‘corvina sound’of the Gulf corvina. Wait, haven't heard of that last one?

海湾石首鱼大合唱。等等,你没有听过吗?

"It's a true wildlife spectacle. A fish this loud, this many fish calling."

“这是真正的自然景观。一条鱼的叫声就很响,那么很多条鱼一起叫。”

Brad Erisman is a fisheries ecologist at the University of Texas, Austin. And to hear him tell it, the chatter of the corvina fish belongs right up there with those other great spectacles.

布拉德·埃里森曼是德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校的渔业生态学家。他表示,石首鱼喋喋不休的声音和其他伟大的景观一样。

Every spring, he says, the fish migrate hundreds of miles to the northernmost reaches of the Sea of Cortez, the body of water between Baja, California and mainland Mexico. And there, at the Colorado River Delta, "it has this massive synchronous spawning with outgoing tides for two to three days, every other week, for three months."

他表示,每年春天,石首鱼迁移数百英里至科尔特兹海的最北端,科尔特兹海是位于巴加、加利福尼亚和墨西哥大陆之间的水域。在科罗拉多河三角洲,石首鱼每隔一周进行2-3天大规模产卵,时间与离任的潮汐同步,时间持续三个月。

And during that time, it also makes this noise, produced by flexing muscles around the swim bladder. "And it allows the swim bladder to reverberate. Much like any sort of drum, any sort of gas-filled chamber."

在这段时间,石首鱼因为鱼鳔附近肌肉的伸缩也会发出这种噪声。“这会让鱼鳔回响,就像一种鼓,一种充满气体的腔。”

That simultaneous drumming of hundreds of thousands or even millions of fish is extremely loud. "It's louder than if you were a meter away from the stage at a rock concert." In fact, Erisman and his colleague Timothy Rowell have found that corvina chatter rivals the decibel levels produced by whales—loud enough, even, to damage the hearing of dolphins—making it among the loudest underwater animal sounds on the planet.

成千上万甚至上百万条鱼同时发出的声音非常响亮。甚至比你站在摇滚音乐舞台1米外的声音还要响亮。实际上,Eriaman 和同事迪莫斯·罗威尔发现石首鱼的声音与鲸鱼产生的声音分贝不想上下——声音之大,甚至可以使海豚的听力受损——这使其成为地球上最响的水下动物声音。

The aquatic cacophony is written up in the journal Biology Letters.

该研究结果发表在《生物学快报》杂志上。

But the sound is under attack—by our teeth. "Fried, baked, put it in tacos. Pretty much any way you can think of, you can make corvina." Which spells danger for the singing fish. "It's heavily exploited, it's overfished, and we're really concerned about the fishery collapsing."

但是,这种声音正在受到我们牙齿的攻击。“炸、烤、夹心玉米卷。你能想象得到的很多办法,都可以烹饪石首鱼。”威胁到了这种唱歌的鱼。它被严重开采,过度捕捞,我们真的很担心渔业的崩溃。

But by spreading the word about the corvina's signature sound, Erisman hopes to keep the species—and its song—from going silent.

但是,通过传播石首鱼标志性的声音,埃里斯曼希望保护此物种——以及它的歌声——而不是使这种声音走向沉默。

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