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科学美国人60秒:钯催化的交叉偶联

所属教程:科学美国人60秒科学系列 更新:12-29
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The 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry goes to the University of Delaware’s Richard Heck, Purdue’s Ei-ichi Negishi and Hokkaido University’s Akira Suzuki for their work in developing new ways to synthesize complex organic molecules by way of what are called palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings.

特拉华大学的理查德·赫克、珀杜大学的根岸英一,以及北海道大学的铃木章荣获2010年诺贝尔化学奖。他们研发了一种新的被称为“钯催化的交叉偶联”合成复杂有机分子的方法。

Two organic compounds that ordinarily would not readily react with other easily both bond to an atom of palladium. Carbon atoms on the two molecules, now in close proximity, bond to each other, forming a new compound.

钯原子可以轻易地把两种正常情况下不易反应的有机化合物联接起来。两个分子上的碳原子非常接近,相互联接,形成新的化合物。

Biochemist Lars Thelander at the announcement from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences: “Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling has made it possible to synthesize carbon based molecules, for example, new medicines, agricultural chemicals and organic compounds used in the electronics industry.”

生化学家拉施‧铁兰德在瑞士皇家科学院的发言中说道:“钯催化的交叉偶联法让我们有可能合成由碳原子组成的分子——比如说新的药物、农药以及电子行业的有机化合物。”

A prime example is discodermalide, produced naturally by a marine sponge, but in very small quantities. After it was found to have anti-tumor properties, large quantities were able to be made using palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling.

最突出的例子就是一种最近发现的天然聚酮化合物——discodermalide,它在海绵中提炼,但数量极少。自从发现它有抗癌作用之后,我们就可以用钯催化的交叉偶联法大量合成这种物质。

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