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科学美国人60秒:健康指南有益地球

所属教程:科学美国人60秒地球系列 更新:01-06
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Nutrition Guidelines Healthy for the Planet, Too

健康指南有益地球

You know those nutrition guidelines the government issues every few years? It turns out that following them isn’t just good for your health. It’s good for the planet, too.

你知道政府每隔几年就会发布健康指南吗?事实证明,跟踪健康指南不仅对自身健康有好处。这对地球也有好处。

“What we found is that impacts vary across nations, but in the high-impact nations, in general, you can see that, if you follow a nationally recommended diet, despite the fact that these diets don’t mention explicitly—or most of them don’t explicitly mention—environmental impacts, that you are going to have lower environmental impacts due to that. So that’s sort of fairly clear across all the high-income nations.”

我们发现,在不同的国家影响不同,但是在高影响力的国家,一般而言,如果你遵循推荐的饮食,尽管这些饮食并没有明确提及——多数没有明确提及——环境影响,但是为此你会减少对环境的影响。而这些在高收入国家都非常明确。

Paul Behrens, an environmental scientist at Leiden University in the Netherlands. The food we eat takes a big toll on the environment. A third of the ice-free land on Earth is used for agriculture, and according to some estimates, producing food accounts for roughly a fifth of all human-caused greenhouse gas emissions. Fertilizer runoff also leads to other problems, like the algae blooms in Lake Eerie and the Dead Zone in the Gulf of Mexico.

Paul Behrens,是荷兰莱顿大学的环境科学家。我们所吃的食物给环境带来了巨大的负面影响。地球上三分之一的无冰土地用于耕作,同时根据部分人士估计,人类生产的食物约占人类排放温室气体的五分之一。肥料的流失也会引发其他问题,例如伊利湖海藻泛滥以及墨西哥湾的死区。

However, following dietary guidelines would reduce those impacts, especially in wealthy countries like the US. “Most of the reductions come from meat and dairy,” which have an outsized impact on land use and pollution, and are a major source of greenhouse gases. (That’s partly due to cow farts. Seriously.) Heeding recommendations would also mean eating fewer calories, since many people here eat more than they need.

然而,遵循膳食指南会减少这些影响,尤其是在美国等发达国家。“多数饮食是减少肉类和奶制品,”这两类食品对对土地使用和污染产生了巨大的影响,同时是温室气体的主要来源。(部分原因是因为牛放屁。)听从建议也意味着摄入更少的卡路里,因为这些国家许多人摄入的食物量超过所需的量。

Overall, in high-income countries, Behren’s team estimates that following the rules could result in as much as a 17 percent reduction in land use, a 21 percent reduction in nutrient pollution, and a 25 percent drop in agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Cutting down on how much food we waste—which is roughly a third in the U.S.—could help even more. The results are in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

总而言之,在高收入国家,Behren的团队估计,按照健康指南可导致,土地使用减少17%,营养污染减少21%,农业温室气体排放减少25%。减少我们浪费的食物量——在美国约占三分之一——会提供更大的帮助。研究结果发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》。

Of course, people are notoriously bad at following diets. But: “These nationally recommended guidelines do actually have a knock-on effect to other areas of policy making. So if I’m developing a new healthy-eating-for-schools program then that’s going to be based off a lot of detail that I get from the nationally recommended guidelines. So while it might not necessarily be the case that people follow directly…they actually are quite influential on the preparation of other advice.”

当然,人们遵循健康饮食的习惯名声并不好。但是:“这些国家推荐的指南实际上对其他领域制定政策产生了连锁反应。因此,如果我正在为学校开发一种新的健康饮食计划,那我将从国家推荐的指南中得到的许多信息。因此,尽管人们没有必要按部就班的遵循指南……但是实际上也会很大程度上影响其他建议的准备。

Seems that a smaller environmental footprint and a healthier lifestyle could go hand in hand.

似乎一个微小的环境足迹和更健康的生活方式可以携手并进。

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