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科学美国人60秒:若机器人模仿人类

所属教程:科学美国人60秒科学系列 更新:11-30
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Bots Outperform Humans if They Impersonate Us

若机器人模仿人类

Last year, Google unveiled Duplex, its artificial-intelligence-powered assistant.

去年,谷歌推出了它的人工智能助手Duplex。

“How can I help you?”

“我能帮你什么吗?”

“Hi, I’m calling to book a women’s haircut for a client. Um, I’m looking for something on May 3rd.”

你好,我打电话来为客户预订一个女士发型。嗯,我在找5月3号的东西。”

That’s a robot.

这是一台机器人。

“Sure, give me one second.”

好,请您稍等。

“Mm-hmm.”

嗯。

“For what time are you looking for around?” 

“需要多长时间?”

The machine assistant never identified itself as a bot in the demo. And Google got a lot of flak for that. They later clarified that they would only launch the tech with “disclosure built in.”

演示中,机器助手从未将自己定义为机器人。谷歌因此受到了很多批评。他们后来澄清说,他们只会推出“内置披露”的技术。

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But therein lies a dilemma, because a new study in the journal Nature Machine Intelligence suggests that a bot is most effective when it hides its machine identity. 

但这里存在一个两难的问题,因为发表在《自然机器智能》(Nature Machine Intelligence)杂志上的一项新研究表明,当机器人隐藏自己的机器身份时,效率最高。

“That is, if it is allowed to pose as human.”

“也就是说如果机器人扮成人类的话,效率最高。”

Talal Rahwan is a computational social scientist at New York University’s campus in Abu Dhabi. His team recruited nearly 700 online volunteers to play the prisoner’s dilemma—a classic game of negotiation, trust and deception—against either humans or bots. Half the time, the human players were told the truth about who they were matched up against. The other half, they were told they were playing a bot when they were actually playing a human or that they were battling a human when, in fact, it was only a bot. 

塔拉勒·拉赫万是纽约大学阿布扎比分校的计算社会科学家。他的团队在网上招募了近700名志愿者来玩“囚徒困境”——一种典型的谈判、信任和欺骗游戏——对抗人类或机器人。有一半时间,人类玩家被告知他们对手的身份。另一半,他们被告在和一个机器人对抗,而实际上他们在与人对抗,或者他们是在和一个人战斗,而实际上那只是一个机器人。

And the scientists found that bots actually did remarkably well in this game of negotiation—if they impersonated humans. 

科学家们发现,如果机器人模仿人类,它们实际上在这场谈判游戏中表现得非常出色。

“When the machine is reported to be human, it outperforms humans themselves. It’s more persuasive; it’s able to induce cooperation and persuade the other opponent to cooperate more than humans themselves.”

当机器被报道是人类时,机器人的表现就超过人类。这更有说服力;它能够诱导人类合作,并说服其他对手与人类进行多方合作。”

But whenever the bots’ true nature was disclosed, their superiority vanished. And Rahwan says that points to a fundamental conundrum. We can now build really efficient bots—that perform tasks even better than we can—but their efficiency may be linked to their ability to hide their identity—which, you know, feels ethically problematic. 

但一旦这些机器人的身份被揭露,它们的优越性就消失了。Rahwan说这指出了一个基本的难题。我们现在可以制造出真正高效的机器人——它们能比我们更好地执行任务——但它们的效率可能与隐藏身份的能力有关——你知道,这在道德上是有问题的。

“Those very humans who will be deceived by the machine, they are the ones who ultimately have to make that choice. Otherwise it would violate fundamental values of autonomy, respect and dignity for humans.”

“那些会被机器欺骗的人,他们最终不得不做出选择。”否则,它将违反自治、尊重和人类尊严。”

It’s not realistic to ask people for consent before every bot-human interaction. That would, of course, reveal the bots’ true identity. So we, as a society, will have to figure out if making our lives a bit easier is worth interacting with bots that pretend to be human.

每一次人机互动之前都要征得别人的同意是不现实的。当然,这也会暴露机器人的真实身份。因此,作为一个社会成员,我们必须弄清楚,与伪装成人类的机器人互动让生活变得更轻松是否值的。

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