导航

科学美国人60秒: 海雀使用棍子“挠痒”

所属教程:科学美国人60秒科学系列 更新:01-14
00:00/00:00
点击单词,可查看发音和词义哦。

Atlantic Puffins Spotted Using Tools

海雀使用棍子“挠痒”

We humans used to think that our ability to use tools made us different from all other animals. But then we found out that chimps use tools, too, such as twigs to gather termite snacks and rocks to hammer open nuts. And some birds use tools—like brainy New Caledonian crows, which can assemble multipart tools to solve puzzle boxes presented to them by researchers.

我们人类曾经认为,使用工具的能力使我们有别于所有其他动物。但后来发现,黑猩猩也会使用工具,比如收集白蚁零食的小树枝和敲开坚果的石头。还有一些鸟类使用工具,比如聪明的新喀里多尼亚乌鸦,它们可以组装多种工具来解决研究人员呈现的谜题。

Now we’ve learned that a different group of birds—seabirds—can also use tools. Scientists spied on Atlantic puffins, the distinctive tuxedoed birds with bright orange beaks. And in 2014 the observers spotted one floating on the sea off Wales, scratching its back with a stick.

现在我们了解到另一种鸟类——海鸟——也可以使用工具。科学家们对大西洋海雀进行了侦察,这种与众不同的鸟有燕尾服和亮橙色的喙。2014年,观察员们在威尔士附近的海面上发现了一只漂浮的鲨鱼,用棍子挠它的背。

\

Then, in 2018, the researchers caught another tool-using puffin on camera, on Iceland’s Grímsey Island.

然后,在2018年,研究人员在冰岛格里姆西岛(Grimsey Island)拍摄到另一种现象——正在使用工具的海雀。

[CLIP: Video]

In a short video clip, a puffin can be seen grabbing a stick with its beak and then using it to scratch its chest—perhaps to dislodge one of the seabird ticks infesting the island that summer.

在一段简短的视频剪辑中,可以看到一只海雀用它的喙抓着一根棍子,然后用它来挠自己的胸部——也许是为了赶走那年夏天在岛上出没的一只海鸟蜱。

The details about puffin proficiency are in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

关于海雀熟练程度的细节发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》上。

Study author Annette Fayet told Scientific American in an e-mail that these two instances don’t prove that seabirds are highly intelligent—though they could be smarter than we thought.

该研究的作者安妮特·法耶特在一封电子邮件中告诉《科学美国人》,这两个例子并不能证明海鸟非常聪明——尽管它们可能比我们想象的更聪明。

But what is certain, she says, is that puffin populations are crashing, and it’s largely the fault of us and our tools—which have led to overfishing, climate change, marine pollution and the presence of invasive species, all of which make seabird life harder. It would be nice to keep puffins and their compatriots around and find out just what else we don’t know that they’re capable of.

但可以肯定的是,她说,海雀的数量正在减少,这在很大程度上是我们和工具的错——导致了过度捕捞、气候变化、海洋污染和入侵物种的存在,所有这些都使海鸟的生活更加艰难。如果能把海雀和它们的同胞留在身边,看看它们还有什么我们不知道的本领,那就太好了!

最受欢迎的教程

下载听力课堂手机客户端
随时随地练听力!(可离线学英语)