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科学美国人60秒: 这条鱼知道如何逗留

所属教程:科学美国人60秒科学系列 更新:01-16
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This Fish Knows How to Stick Around

这条鱼知道如何逗留

The remora is an unusual fish. It hitchhikes on other sea creatures, using a sucker on its head.

雷莫拉鱼是一种不同寻常的鱼。它靠头上的吸盘搭上其他海洋生物的便车。“

"So you can see them on whales, dolphins, sharks, turtles, they stick to scuba divers, they stick to boats, to other fishes, other remoras."

你可以在鲸鱼、海豚、鲨鱼、海龟身上看到它们,它们喜欢潜水,喜欢船,喜欢其他鱼类,喜欢其他鱼。”

Brooke Flammang is a comparative biomechanist at the New Jersey Institute of Technology and Rutgers University. She says sticking to other animals is a pretty good strategy. "They avoid predation by sticking to large animals—no one's going to attack you if you're on a shark. It's a food source—many of them pick parasites off of the host they're attached to, and eat bits of food that are flying by, and poop. And they also have the ability to potentially meet other remoras for mating on the same organism."

布鲁克·弗朗曼是新泽西州理工学院和罗格斯大学的比较生物力学家。她说,和其他动物在一起是一个很好的策略。“它们通过捕食大型动物来避免捕食——如果你吃的是鲨鱼,没有人会攻击你。这是一种食物来源——它们中的许多从它们附着的寄主上取下寄生虫,吃一些飞过的食物,然后拉屎。它们也有能力在同一生物体上与其他鱼交配。”

But now her team has discovered that the fish have another unusual quality: they're sensitive to touch. A type of touch previously unknown in the fish world."Up until now we didn't think fish had the ability to sense touch in this way, or to sense dragging and shear, which is going to be very important for a remora, which is attached to something moving very quickly."

但现在,她的团队发现了这种鱼的另一个不同寻常的特性:它们对触摸很敏感。一种以前在鱼类世界中不为人知的接触。“到目前为止,我们还不认为鱼有这样的能力来感知触摸,或者感知拖拽和剪切,这对粘在快速移动的物体上的鲤鱼来说是非常重要的。”

By dissecting the fishes' suckers, and looking at the tissue with electron microscopes and CT scans, they saw an unusual push-button-like structure, which they determined must be a type of mechanoreceptor, enabling a sense of touch. "We just started poring through the literature trying to figure out what we were even looking at, and the only thing that has the same structure, a push-rod mechanoreceptor, are monotremes: platypus and echidnas." The details are in the journal Royal Society Open Science. [Karly E. Cohen, Brooke E. Flammang, Callie H. Crawford and L. Patricia Hernandez, Knowing when to stick: touch receptors found in the remora adhesive disc]

通过解剖这些鱼的吸盘,用电子显微镜和CT扫描观察这些组织,他们发现了一个不同寻常的按钮状结构,他们断定这一定是一种机械感受器,能够产生触觉。“我们刚刚开始研究文献,试图找出我们正在观察的东西,唯一具有相同结构的是单孔类:鸭嘴兽和针鼹鼠,这是一种推杆机械感受器。”详情发表在《皇家学会开放科学》杂志上。

The study suggests that this sort of touch perception arose independently at least twice in the animal kingdom: in remoras and monotremes. And, big picture? "I think the real story here is that we just need to look for different sensory capacities in organisms to a much larger extent."

研究表明,在动物王国中,这种触觉至少有两次是独立产生的,分别是鱼和montremes鱼。大图片?“我认为真正的问题是,我们只需要在更大的范围内寻找生物体的不同感官能力。”

Because there are a lot of ways that life forms have come up with to make a living.

因为生命形式有很多谋生的方式。

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