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科学美国人60秒: 电脑证实了贝多芬的影响力

所属教程:科学美国人60秒科学系列 更新:03-23
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Computers Confirm Beethoven's Influence

电脑证实了贝多芬的影响力

Beethoven is a giant of classical music. And the most influential, too—at least, when it comes to piano compositions. That’s according to a study in the journal EPJ Data Science.

贝多芬是古典音乐的巨人。至少是在钢琴作曲方面是最具影响力的。这是根据《EPJ数据科学》杂志上的一项研究得出的结论。

If you’re wondering how data analysis could determine something as intangible as cultural influence, it’s worth remembering this:

如果你想知道数据分析是如何确定文化影响这样的无形因素的,那么请记住这一点:

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“The great thing about music: it’s the most mathematical of the art forms we actually can deal with. A lot of it is symbolic; it’s temporal. The music is written in symbols that are connected in time.”

“音乐的伟大之处在于:它是我们能够处理的最数学化的艺术形式。很多艺术形式都是象征性的;是暂时的。但音乐是用符号写出来的,这些符号在时间上是相互联系的。”

Juyong Park is a theoretical physicist by training and associate professor of culture technology at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology.

朴居勇,韩国高等科学技术学院理论物理学家,文化技术副教授。

Park and his colleagues collected 900 piano compositions by 19 composers spanning the Baroque, Classical and Romantic periods, from 1700 to 1910.

帕克和同事们收集了19位作曲家的900首钢琴作品,这些作曲家跨越了从1700年到1910年的巴洛克时期、古典时期和浪漫时期。

Then they used that mathematical quality to their advantage by dividing each composition into what they called “code words,” a group of simultaneously played notes—in other words, a chord.

然后,他们利用这种数学性质,将每首曲子分成他们所谓的“暗语”,即一组同时演奏的音符,换句话说,一个和弦。

They then compared each chord to the chord or note that came after it ...

然后,他们将每个和弦与其后的和弦或音符进行比较。

... which allowed them to determine how creative composers were at coming up with novel transitions.

这使他们能够确定有创造力的作曲家是如何想出新颖的过渡形式的。

The composer with top marks for novelty? Rachmaninoff.

因为新奇而获得高分的作曲家?拉赫玛尼诺夫。

But when the researchers looked at those chord transitions across all 19 composers, it was Beethoven who was most heavily borrowed from—meaning, at least among the composers in this analysis, his influence loomed the largest.

但当研究人员观察19位作曲家的和弦过渡时,发现贝多芬借用的最多——至少在分析的作曲家中,他的影响最大。

Their study comes with a couple caveats. Again, the researchers only considered piano compositions in this work—not orchestral works. And by only studying chord transitions, their conclusions wouldn’t capture artists who were influential in other ways.

但是研究有几点需要注意。研究人员只考虑了这部作品中的钢琴作品,而不是管弦乐作品。通过研究和弦过渡,他们的结论并不能抓住那些在其他方面有影响力的艺术家。

“It’s well understood that Mozart’s contribution to music comes from the musical forms that he devised. That was not very well captured by our modeling.”

“众所周知,莫扎特对音乐的贡献来自于他所设计的音乐形式。我们的模型没有很好地捕捉到这一点。”

As for Park, the results convinced him he has some listening to do.

而对于帕克而言,调查结果让他确信自己需要倾听一些音乐。

"I like Rachmaninoff’s music but I have to confess, I have listened to Beethoven way more than Rachmaninoff. So after this work came out, I ended up buying his whole complete collection from Amazon, I’m waiting for this collection to arrive.”

“我喜欢拉赫玛尼诺夫的音乐,但我必须承认,我听贝多芬比拉赫玛尼诺夫多。所以在这个作品出来后,我最终从亚马逊买了他所有的作品,我在等待这个系列的到来。”

Seems that Park turned a minor interest into a major commitment—in a key way.

似乎帕克把一个小兴趣变成了一个大承诺——以一种关键的方式。

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